4GK005 Campaigning and Citizenship
Divisions in the Women's Suffrage Movement in Britain
NUWSSThe National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) and the Women's Freedom League (WFL) were the main suffrage organisations but the movement also included the Women's Co-operative Guild and groups within political parties and trades unions.
1867 The first women's suffrage societies were formed. The National Society for Women's Suffrage was the umbrella organisation.
Between 1870 and 1878, a private member's bill for women's suffrage presented each year.
1890 Lydia Becker died and Millicent Fawcett became President of the National Society.
All exisitng suffrage societies brought together in the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies.
1905 --> Many of the leading figures in the NUWSS had been associated with the Liberal Party but after 1905 lost faith in Liberal governments.
NUWSS campaigning methods included petitions, open-air meetings, campaigning in elections, lobbying of Parliament, mass demonstrations.
1914 Massive march in London.
WSPUWomen's Social and Political Union (WSPU) formed by Emmeline Pankhurst in Manchester. Had close connections with the Independent Labour Party (ILP).
In 1905, a desire for more progress on womne's suffrage led members of the WSPU to begin disruptive tactics.
Around this time, the WSPU broke with the ILP, began to campaign against Labout candidates and moved to London.
1906-9 Campaign of disruption, Parliamentary lobbying and mass demonstrations.
In 1909, the Prime Minister refused to meet a deputation from the WSPU.
1910-1911 Period of truce
1911 Window breaking on a massive scale
1913 Campaign of arson & destruction of property
'Votes for Women' or 'Adult Suffrage'Extension of the suffrage to women required a majority of votes in a Parliament consisting of men.
Campaigns to win a parliamentary majority were complicated by
1867 women's suffrage petition would not have enfranchised married women if passed, because at that time women lost all civil rights on marriage.
The NUWSS and the WSPU (until 1907) called for
In opposition to this strategy, many men and some women in the Labour Representation Committee and later the Labour Party argued that they could not support a campaign that
The Lancashire suffragists challenged this view and argued that
1906 The same thing happened at the next conference, but by a smaller majority.
1907 This time the adult suffrage resolution was passed by an overwhelming majoirty.
1908 The same thing happened.
According to Liddington and Norris, most of the Labour Party saw the issue in the context of the party's likely electoral fortunes and of prevailing ideas about a 'women's place'.
1918 It can be argued that women only got the vote at the end of the war because there had to be changes to elctoral law in order to enfranchise soldiers and sailors who either did not have the vote or who did not meet residence requirements because of joining the forces.
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