5PO005 Europe United: European Politics, Societies, Cultures
Weeks 20 and 21 Human rights and civil liberties
Human rights are universal rights that all human beings possess.
These rights exist irrespective of legal or citizenship rights
'Universal rights held to belong to individuals by virtue of their being human, encompassing civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights and freedoms, and based on the notion of personal human dignity and worth'.
Columbia Encyclopedia (2008). Accessed via Credo Reference http://www.credoreference.com (no longer available March 2017).
‘Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death. They apply regardless of where you are from, what you believe or how you choose to live your life. They can never be taken away, although they can sometimes be restricted – for example if a person breaks the law, or in the interests of national security’,
Equality and Human Rights Commission, https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/human-rights/what-are-human-rights(accessed 24 March 2017)
'The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are considered to be entitled, often held to include the rights to life, liberty, equality, and a fair trial, freedom from slavery and torture, and freedom of thought and expression’
The Free Dictionary, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/human+rights (accessed 24 March 2017)
‘Human rights are commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being’
Icelandic Human Rights Centre, http://www.humanrights.is/en/human-rights-education-project/human-rights-concepts-ideas-and-fora/part-i-the-concept-of-human-rights/definitions-and-classifications (accessed 24 March 2017)
Civil liberties are the freedoms that citizens of a country can exercise under the law.
'Civil liberties are the freedoms, protected by law, generally considered to be essential features of liberal democratic government. The most important civil liberties prohibit governmental or state officials from unwarranted
interference in the personal, political and economic activities of a citizen (see liberalism). The fundamental civil liberties include freedom of the person, of privacy, of movement, of expression, of association, and of worship. They
are considered essential elements of a liberal civil society'.
Bloomsbury Guide to Human Thought (1983) http://www.credoreference.com/entry/bght/civil_liberties (not accessible March 2017).
'Those liberties relating to free self-expression, free movement and freedom from arbitrary arrest. Although there is not complete agreement about what is included in the concept, by common consent, free speech and a free press are
civil liberties. So is freedom of assembly, incorporating freedom of worship. These freedoms are those usually associated with democracy. Freedom of the person and the right to a fair trial are part of the situation known as the rule of
Blackwell Dictionary of Political Science, (1999) http://www.credoreference.com/entry/bkpolsci/civil_liberties (not accessible March 2017).
'Civil liberties are the rights and freedoms that protect an individual from the state and which are underpinned by a country’s legal system', About Human Rights http://www.abouthumanrights.co.uk/human-rights-civil-liberties.html
'Status as a member of a state. In most countries citizenship may be acquired either by birth or by naturalization. The status confers rights such as voting and the protection of the law and also imposes responsibilities such as military
service, in some countries'.
The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. (2010) http://www.credoreference.com/entry/heliconhe/citizenship (accessed 24 March 2017).
'The rights and duties relating to an individual's membership in a political community'.
The Dictionary of Human Geography http://www.credoreference.com/entry/bkhumgeo/citizenship (accessed 24 March 2017).
'1. the status or position of a citizen.
2. the rights and duties of a citizen.
3. a person's conduct in relation to such duties'.
Chambers 21st Century Dictionary (2001) http://www.xreferplus.com/entry/1194794 (not accessible since March 2011).
'The legal link between an individual and a state or territory as a result of which the individual is entitled to certain protection, rights and privileges, and subject to certain obligations and allegiance'.
Collins Dictionary of Law (1996) http://www.xreferplus.com/entry/1368179 (not accessible since March 2011).
A citizen is
'Any member of a political community or state who enjoys clear rights and duties associated with this membership, i.e. who is not merely a 'subject'. Until modern times, with only a few exceptions, citizenship was typically
restricted to a relatively narrow group within a political community, or was entirely absent. In the modern nation state, however, not only has citizenship become the usual pattern, but the number of people admitted to this status has
expanded, with universal suffrage and full citizen rights established as the normal pattern'.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology (2006) http://www.credoreference.com/entry/collinssoc/citizen (accessed 24 March 2017).
'A citizen is a member of a political community who enjoys the rights and assumes the duties of membership',Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011) https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/citizenship/ (accessed 24 March 2017).
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
This was agreed by the United Nations on 10 December 1948 http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html
The Universal Declaration does not have an enforcement mechanism. Instead, the Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights within the United Nations provides 'a forum for identifying, highlighting and developing responses to today's
human rights challenges, and act as the principal focal point of human rights research, education, public information, and advocacy activities in the United Nations system' http://www.ohchr.org/EN/AboutUs/Pages/WhatWeDo.aspx.
Tasks for Students
Read the whole Universal Declaration.
Jot down any reactions you have to it.
List the reasons why you think it was drawn up at this stage in world history.
Does the Universal Declaration indicate any circumstances under which governments are not obliged to uphold human rights?
Other Human Rights Documents
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
(Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966)
In 1976, after being ratified by the required 35 states, the Covenant became international law.
International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights
(Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966; entry into force 3 January 1976, in accordance with article 27)
In 1997, this Covenant had not yet been ratified by 35 states.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 2 International Covenants above, together make up the International Bill of Rights.
The Covenants are binding on countries which sign them and their implementation is monitored through the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations, is the body of independent experts who are independent of the governments that
According to David Weissbrodt (1988), the UNCHR uses persuasion, embarassment, aid to victims of human rights violations and technical assistance to governments to enforce the Covenants.
The Committee also receive reports from non-govermental organisations such as
International conferences on Human Rights have also generated important declarations e.g.
Julia Hausermann (1988) says of the Helsinki Conference
'Both east and west recognised the importance of human rights in promoting international co-operation and security, but whilst the west interpreted these to mean personal liberty and freedom of speech, opinion, and movement, the east
emphasized the need for adequate housing, employment, health care and education.' (p. 135)
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights
Agreed 4 November 1950. http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/005.htm
The European Convention is based on the Universal Declaration and was drawn up within the Council of Europe in 1950 and came into force in 1953. In 1954 the European Commission of Human Rights was set up and in 1959, the European
Court of Human Rights.
These two bodies were replaced by a single full-time Court in 1998.
Violations of Human Rights/Restrictions on Civil Liberties in Europe
On the 50th anniversary of the UN Declation, Keith Suter (1998) wrote:
'Human Rights' are fundamental privileges or immunities to which all people have a claim. They are not 'given' by governments since they are derived automatically from being human. Since governments cannot 'give' human rights, they
should not try to take them away. Human rights thinking - especially since 1945 - is based on the assumption that in essence all humans have a common core. Humans may be divided on gender lines, speak different languages, and have
different skin colours. But fundamentally there are great similarities and these similarities are manifested partly in the rights which all humans enjoy'.
Soviet Union & Eastern Europe pre-1992
In these communist systems, human rights were violated and civil liberties infringed through suppression of dissent e.g.
Repression of dissent in USSR & Eastern Europe was often justified by govenments with reference to the interests of socialism or the interests of the majority or the national interest.
- National minorities
- Mass popular opposition
For example, Article 39 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution said 'Enjoyment by citizens of their rights and freedoms must not be to the detriment of the interests of society or the state, or infringe the rights of other citizens.'
Despite open and regular elections with a choice of parties/candidates, there are two main ways in which human rights are violated and civil liberties restricted in Western liberal democracies
Repression of dissent in Western Europe often justified by governments in terms of prevention of terrorism, or curbing illegal immigration or maintaining public order.
1992 Human Rights Watch report includes section on civil servants and freedom of opinion http://www.hrw.org/reports/1993/WR93/Hsw-05.htm#P195_71068
1993 Helsinki Watch monitored violent attacks against foreigners and the implementation of the asylum law.
Their letter to Chancellor Kohl said
'The action of the lower house of Parliament in curbing the influx of refugees to Germany is a serious human rights setback. . . The new law would make it far more difficult for foreigners who have suffered persecution in their home
countries to be granted political asylum in Germany, thus denying them protection guaranteed by international law.
Amnesty International Annual report on Germany 2015/2016 https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/germany/report-germany/
Human Rights Watch (1995) Treatment of refugees http://www.hrw.org/reports/1996/WR96/Helsinki-08.htm#P483_104786
Chrisafis, A. (2009) 'Nicolas Sarkozy says Islamic veils are not welcome in France', The Guardian, 22 June, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jun/22/islamic-veils-sarkozy-speech-france
Amnesty International Annual report on France 2015/2016 https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/france/report-france/
RFI (2015) ‘France to opt out of European human rights convention because of Paris attacks’, RFI, 27 November, http://en.rfi.fr/europe/20151127-france-opt-out-european-human-rights-convention-because-paris-attacks
Macdonald, A. (2017) 'In headscarf ruling, EU court allows religious symbol bans', Reuters, 14 March, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-court-headscarf-idUSKBN16L0UD
Rankin, R. (2017) 'Employers can ban staff from wearing headscarves, European court rules', The Guardian, 14 March, https://www.theguardian.com/law/2017/mar/14/employers-can-ban-staff-from-wearing-headscarves-european-court-rules
Council of Europe (2016) ‘Report: Belgium must tackle prison staff strikes and “chronic” over-crowding’, 31 March, http://www.humanrightseurope.org/2016/03/report-belgium-must-tackle-prison-staff-strikes-and-chronic-over-crowding/
Human Rights Watch (2002) Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment of Unaccompanied Refugee Children http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/11/spainCAT1112ltr.htm
Human Rights Watch (2007) Spain's Failure to Protect the Rights of Unaccompanied Migrant Children in the Canary Islands https://www.hrw.org/report/2007/07/26/unwelcome-responsibilities/spains-failure-protect-rights-unaccompanied-migrant
Human Rights Watch (2008) Spain's Push to Repatriate Unaccompanied Children in the Absence of Safeguards https://www.hrw.org/report/2008/10/17/returns-any-cost/spains-push-repatriate-unaccompanied-children-absence-safeguards
Human Rights Watch (2010) Report on treatment of migrant children 2010 http://www.hrw.org/europecentral-asia/spain
Human Rights Watch (2006) 'Sweden Violated Torture Ban in CIA Rendition' http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2006/11/09/sweden-violated-torture-ban-cia-rendition
US State Department (2007) Report on Sweden http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78841.htm
Human Rights Watch (2012) Letter to the Prime Minister of Sweden Regarding Transgender Law https://www.hrw.org/news/2012/01/14/sweden-letter-prime-minister-regarding-transgender-law
Mills. H. (1995) 'UN demands restoration of right to silence', Independent http://www.independent.co.uk/news/un-demands-restoration-of-right-to-silence-1592580.html
UK Human Rights Act 1998 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/42/contents
Norton-Taylor, R. and Gow, D. (2002) 'How agencies hunted union "subversives"', The Guardian, 24 October, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2002/oct/24/uk.past
Statewatch (2003) Amnesty report on Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act (2001) http://www.statewatch.org/news/2003/oct/30ai.htm
2003 Use of information gained through torture
Evans, M. (2004) ‘The appeal court has legitimised the use of confessions made under torture abroad to detain suspected terrorists. Next stop, the House of Lords’, Guardian, 13 August http://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/aug/13/humanrights.ukcrime
Norton-Taylor, R. and Cobain, I. (2006) 'MPs recall Straw as air traffic controllers confirm 200 CIA flights', The Guardian23 February, https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/feb/23/politics.usa
Norton-Taylor, R. (2007) 'Amnesty criticises Britain over forced returns of Iraqi refugees', The Guardian, 25 September, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/sep/25/immigration.iraqhttps://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/sep/25/immigration.iraq
2014 Islamic Human Rights Commission Open Letter to William Hague (on the Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Annual Report on Human Rights & Democracy), http://www.ihrc.org.uk/activities/campaigns/11001-open-letter-to-william-hague-28-april-2014
(2014) ‘Playing to the right’, 11 October, Economist, http://www.economist.com/news/britain/21623769-conservatives-plans-reform-human-rights-laws-are-muddle-playing-right
2015 Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women,its causes and consequences on visit to UK http://www.endviolenceagainstwomen.org.uk/data/files/UNSR_VAW_UK_report_-_19_May_2015.pdf
Amnesty International Annual report on United Kingdom 2015/2016 https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/united-kingdom/report-united-kingdom/
Smith, L. (2017) 'UK Breaches of Human Rights Law', About Human Rights, http://www.abouthumanrights.co.uk/uk-breaches-human-rights-law.html
The Justice Gap (2017) 'UK counter-terror laws are chipping away fundamental rights, says Amnesty', 26 March, http://thejusticegap.com/2017/01/uk-counter-terror-laws-chipping-away-fundamental-rights-says-amnesty/
Former Soviet states & Eastern Europe post-1992
In August 1991, Yeltsin as President of the Russia Republic, had been one of the defenders of the Russian parliament against the leaders of the attempted coup.
But in September 1993, Yeltsin unconstitutionally disbanded the Russian Parliament.
Following resistance by the opposition in Parliament, he used armed troops to attack it in October 1993 in order to preserve his power.
See Human Rights Watch Report, http://www.hrw.org/reports/1994/WR94/Helsinki-18.htm#P555_166288
2003 Treatment of Conscripts - see Human Rights Watch Report https://www.hrw.org/legacy/wr2k3/europe11.html
2003 Abuse of displaced Chechens in Ingushetia http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/russia0903/
Leach, P. (2003) 'Europe turns spotlight on human rights in Chechnya', The Times, 28 January.
Harding, L. (2007) 'Russian journalist who angered country's military falls to death', The Guardian, 6 March, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/mar/06/russia.lukeharding
Harding, L. (2009) 'Journalism in the shadow of death and Putin', The Guardian, 12 April, https://www.theguardian.com/media/2009/apr/12/newspapers-Russia
2009 Report of UN Human Rights Committee on Russian Federation http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/co/CCPR.C.RUS.CO.6.pdf
Amnesty International Annual report on Russian Federation 2015/2016 https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/russian-federation/report-russian-federation/
Council of Europe (2016) ‘European Court: Russia has a “structural problem” and violated human rights of HIV-positive foreigners’, 15 March, http://www.humanrightseurope.org/2016/03/european-court-russia-has-a-structural-problem-and-violates-human-rights-of-hiv-positive-foreigners/
Bivens, M. (2001) 'Uzbekistan's human rights problem', The Nation, https://www.thenation.com/article/uzbekistans-human-rights-problem/
BBC News (2004) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3747132.stm
The Guardian (2005) '"Hundreds killed" in Uzbekistan violence', 14 May, "https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/may/14/2
The Guardian (2005) 'Nato calls for Andijan inquiry ', 19 May, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/may/19/3
Human Rights Watch (2005) Report on May 13 Killings in Andijan http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/06/07/uzbeki11077.htm
Uniting Food, farm and Hotel Workers Worldwide (2016) 'Uzbekistan: government ratifies ILO Convention 87, forced labour and repression continue', 2 November, http://www.iuf.org/w/?q=node/5206
Civil Rights Defenders 2015 report on Human Rights in Belarushttps://www.civilrightsdefenders.org/country-reports/human-rights-in-belarus/
1996 Failure to protect Roma against racist attack http://hrw.org/reports/1996/Czech.htm
1996 Discrimination against Roma http://hrw.org/reports/1996/Hungary.htm
US State Department (2002) Report on Human Rights in Poland http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2002/18385.htm
Traynor, I. (2007) 'Poland blocks EU protest over death penalty', The Guardian 12 September, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/sep/12/eu.poland
Amnesty International report on Poland 2015-16 https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/poland/report-poland/
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html
United Nations Agreements on Human Rightshttp://www.hrweb.org/legal/undocs.html
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights http://www.hrcr.org/docs/Civil&Political/intlcivpol.html
International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights http://www.hrcr.org/docs/Economic&Social/intlconv.html
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/005.htm
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen http://www.hrcr.org/docs/frenchdec.html
Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org/
Anti-Slavery International http://www.antislavery.org/
Association for Women's Rights in Development http://www.awid.org/
Balkans Human Rights Web pages http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/bhr/english/index.html
British Institute of Human Rights http://www.bihr.org.uk/
CHRI - Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/
Civil Rights Defenders (Sweden) http://www.civilrightsdefenders.org/en/analysis/7604/
Equality and Human Rights Commission (UK) http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/
ERRC - European Roma Rights Centre http://www.errc.org/
European Court of Human Rights http://www.echr.coe.int/
European Human Rights Advocacy Centre http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/research-units/hrsj/affiliated-centres/ehrac/
Global Human Rights Education Network http://www.hrea.org/
Human Rights Centre (University of Essex) http://www2.essex.ac.uk/human_rights_centre/
Human Rights Forum http://www.humanrightsforum.com/
Human Rights (Inter Press Service News Agency) http://www.ipsnews.net/human.asp
Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org/
Icelandic Human Rights Centre http://www.humanrights.is/en
Independent Media Center http://www.indymedia.org/
Institute of Race Relations news (UK) http://www.irr.org.uk/index.html
International League for Human Rights http://www.ilhr.org/
International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission http://www.iglhrc.org/cgi-bin/iowa/home/index.html
Irish Council for Civil Liberties http://homepages.iol.ie/~iccl/home.htm
Islamic Human Rights Commission (UK) http://www.ihrc.org/
Liberty (UK) http://www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk/
Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission http://www.nihrc.org/
OneWorld Net http://www.oneworld.net/
Stonewall (Lesbian and Gay Rights UK) http://www.stonewall.org.uk/default.asp
The Bar Human Rights Committee(UK) http://www.barhumanrights.org.uk/
The International Commission of Jurists http://www.icj.org/
The People's Movement for Human Rights Education http://www.pdhre.org/
The Swedish government's human rights web site http://www.manskligarattigheter.gov.se/extra/pod/?
United Nations Human Rights web site http://www.un.org/en/rights/index.shtml
Unlock Democracy (UK) http://www.unlockdemocracy.org.uk/
U.S. Department of State Country Reports on Human Rights Practices http://www.state.gov/g/drl/hr/
Amnesty International (2014) The human cost of Fortress Europe: human rights violations against migrants and refugees at Europe’s borders, http://migrationonline.cz/en/e-library/the-human-cost-of-fortress-europe-human-rights-violations-against-migrants-and-refugees-at-europe
Beyani, C (2000) Human Rights Standards and the Movement of People within States
Blake, N. and Husain, R. (2003) Immigration, Asylum and Human Rights, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 342.082/BLA
Brownlie, I. and Goodwin-Gill, G.S. (2002) Basic Documents on Human Rights 4th ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Castles, S. and Davidson, A. (2000) Citizenship and Migration: globalization and the politics of belonging, Basingstoke: Macmillan 323.6/CAS
Cornelisse, Galina (2010) Immigration Detention and Human Rights: Rethinking Territorial Sovereignty, Leiden, NLD: Martinus Nijhoff,
Dunkerley, D., Hodgson, L., Konopacki, S. Spybey, T. and Thompson, A. (2002) Changing Europe: identities, nations and citizens, London: Routledge, 323.6094/CHA
Evans, T. (2001) The Politics of Human Rights: a Global Perspective, London: Pluto Press
Fekete, L. (2005) 'The deportation machine: Europe, asylum and human rights', Race & Class, 47(1): 64-78.
Feldman D (1999) Civil Liberties and Human Rights in England and Wales 2nd ed.
Fredman, S. (ed) (2001) Discrimination and Human Rights: the case of racism Oxford: Oxford University Press 341.481/DIS
Freeman, M. (2002) Human Rights 323/FRE
Ganser, D. (2006) 'The CIA in Western Europe and the abuse of human rights', Intelligence and
National Security, 21(5): 760-781.
Gearty C (ed) (1997) European Civil Liberties and the European Convention on Human Rights: a Comparative Study
Gearty, C. (2007) 'Terrorism and Human Rights', Government and Opposition, 42(3): 340–362.
Gies, L. (2006) ‘What Not To Wear: Islamic Dress and School Uniforms’, Feminist Legal Studies 14: 377–389
Haubrich, D. (2003) 'Anti-Terror laws and Civil Liberties: Britain, France and Germany Compared' Government and Opposition 38/1
Hausermann, J. (1988) 'Myths and Realities'in P. Davies (ed.) Human Rights, London: Routledge, 323.4/HUM
Human Rights Watch (2017) World Report 2017 https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2017
Johnson, C. (2006) 'The Use and Abuse of Minority Rights: Assessing Past and Future EU Policies towards Accession Countries of Central,Eastern and South-Eastern Europe', International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 13:
Junger-Tas, J. (2006) 'Introduction: The Respect of Human Rights of Prisoners in Europe', European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 12(2): 79-83.
Lord, Christopher, (1998) Democracy in the European Union, Sheffield : Sheffield Academic Press/UACES 337.142/LOR
Lord, Christopher and Harris, Erika (2006) Democracy in the new Europe, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 321.8094/LOR
Loveland, I. (1999) ‘Incorporating the European Convention on Human Rights into UK Law’, Parliamentary Affairs, 52(1): 113-127.
Mensah, B. (2001) European Human Rights Case Summaries 1960-2000, London: Cavendish, 341.4810268/MEN
Nash, K. (2009) 'Between Citizenship and Human Rights', Sociology, 43: 1067-1083.
Pop, V. (2009) 'EU states criticised for human rights violations', Euobserver, https://euobserver.com/institutional/27413
Rajagopal, B. (2003) 'Defending Academic Freedom as a Human Right: An Internationalist Perspective' International Higher Education, Summer.
Ramet, S. (2008) 'Redefining the Boundaries of Human Rights: The Case of Eastern Europe', Human Rights Review, 9(1): 1-13.
Suter,K. (1998) 'The fiftieth anniversary of the declaration of human rights', Contemporary Review, 273(1595): 281-285.
Sauer, B. (2009) ‘Headscarf regimes in Europe: Diversity policies at the intersection of gender, culture and religion’, Comparative European Politics 7(1): 75–94.
Weiler, J.D. (2002) 'Human Rights in Post-Soviet Russia', Demokratizatsiya, 10(2) https://www2.gwu.edu/~ieresgwu/assets/docs/demokratizatsiya%20archive/10-2_Weiler.PDF
Weissbrodt, D. (1988) 'Human rights: a Historical Perspective' in P. Davies (ed.) Human Rights, London: Routledge, 323.4/HUM
Williamson, M. and Khiabany, G. (2010) ‘UK: the veil and the politics of racism’, Race and Class 52: 85-96.
Barrett, D. (2016) ‘Don't call them “illegal immigrants”, says Europe human rights commissioner’, The Telegraph, 23 March, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/03/23/dont-call-them-illegal-immigrants-says-europe-human-rights-commi/
Bounds, A. (2007) 'Europe's terror chief in human rights warning', Financial Times, 17 February.
Brownlie, I. & Goodwin-Gill, G. (eds.)
Bowcott, O. (2012) 'Human rights violations in EU countries double in five years', The Guardian, 10 October, https://www.theguardian.com/law/2012/oct/10/human-rights-violations-european-union
Gani, A. (2014) ‘What is the European convention on human rights?’ Guardian 3 October, http://www.theguardian.com/law/2014/oct/03/what-is-european-convention-on-human-rights-echr
Klug, F. (1995) 'Britain fails human rights test' New Statesman & Society July 28.
Klug, F. (2002) 'A law fit for a prince', Guardian 3 October
Norton-Taylor, R. (2003) 'War on terror is "making world more dangerous"' The Guardian, 29 May, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/may/29/usa.terrorismhttps://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/may/29/usa.terrorism
Pearlman, A. (2012) 'The EU's top 5 human rights issues', Public Radio International, 12 October, https://www.pri.org/stories/2012-10-12/eus-top-5-human-rights-issues
Ramonet, I. (2004) ‘Russia retreats into repression’, Le Monde Diplomatique, October http://mondediplo.com/2004/10/01caucasia
Silva, J. (2011) ‘Human rights in Europe: No grounds for complacency’, Centre for European Policy Studies, https://www.ceps.eu/content/human-rights-europe-no-grounds-complacency