Chronologies for students on WS3300

The chronologies are not complete. Add relevant dates from the sources you read.

Germany

1851 Combination Law made it illegal for women to join political organisations.
1865 General German Women’s Association formed – stood for married women’s property rights, legal majority for women and women’s education.
1870-71 Unification of Germany.
1878 SPD outlawed.
1879 Bebel, SPD leader, published Women and Socialism.
1884 Legal majority for women established.
During 1880s, women associated with SPD formed Central Association of Women and Girls of Germany.
1890 SPD legalized again.
1892 Trades unions associated with SPD recruited women.
1894 General German Women’s Association formed Federation of German Women’s Associations.
1895 SPD put forward amendment on female suffrage to parliament.
1896 New Civil Code - did not improve position of women.
1896 Clara Zetkin initiated SPD women’s organisation and edited journal Die Gleichheit.
During 1890s women admitted to medical profession.
1899 Marie Stritt became President of Federation of German Women’s Associations.
1901 Federation had 70, 000 members.
1902 Universities open to women.
Federation supported abolition of state control of prostitution and women’s suffrage.
1902 German Union for Women’s Suffrage founded.
1907 Helene Stocker led breakaway group from Federation advocating contraception and legal abortion.
1907 Socialist Women’s International met in Stuttgart - opposed to co-operation with bourgeois feminists.
1908 Women’s participation in political organisations legalized – led to growth in number of suffrage groups.
1908 Marie Stritt ousted as President of Federation along with many ‘equal rights’ feminists.
1908 Zetkin replaced by Luise Zietz as leader of SPD women’s organisation.
1914 SPD had 175, 000 women members – there were 216, 000 women in trade unions.
1914 Suffrage societies had 14, 000 members – but divided into 3 conflicting associations.
1914 Pacifist minority left Federation.
1919 Women over 20 got vote in new Weimar Republic
1919 Programme of Federation said its aim was to unite German women of every party and world view, in order to express their national solidarity and to effect the common idea of the cultural mission of women.
They rejected equality of sexes, supported marriage bar and refused to attend International Council of Women.
1927 Abolition of state regulation of prostitution.
1931 Estimated that 1 million illegal abortions and 10, 000 deaths a year – campaign to repeal Paragraph 218 of 1871 criminal code.
1933 Hitler & Nazi party came to power.
Federation gave qualified approval to Hitler, but constitution did not allow it to join with organisations so dissolved itself rather than obey orders to join mass women’s organisation set up by Nazis.

France chron1.htm
Sweden chron2.htm
Germany chron3.htm
Russia chron4.htm
Italy chron5.htm

Created by Penny Welch September 2000/ updated June 2002

URL: http://pers-www.wlv.ac.uk/~le1810/chron3.htm