PO2011 Issues in Contemporary Europe

Week 3 Press Freedom

Definitions

Press freedom

'The right claimed by newspapers, journals, etc to disseminate such information, news, and opinions as they judge to be in the public interest. Specific press freedoms include the right to found a newspaper free from licensing restraints; editorial freedom; the right of access to public institutions; and the confidentiality of the journalist’s sources. The concept is regarded as an essential feature of modern democracies. In democratic countries, press freedom may conflict with other rights, such as the individual’s right to privacy or the right to reply to adverse comments made by the press. In repressive societies and totalitarian states, press freedom is non-existent; its denial is characterized by censorship and the punitive treatment of independently minded editors and journalists. However, even in democratic countries press freedom is usually limited by legal constraints, proprietors’ interests, economic factors, and professional codes'.
Crystal Reference Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/5750533

Freedom of the press

'Absence of political censorship in the press or other media, a concept seen as basic to Western democracy. Access to and expression of views are, however, in practice restricted by the commercial and financial interests of the owners and advertisers. In the UK the government imposed a ban in 1988 on broadcast interviews with Provisional IRA members, which was upheld by the courts in 1989. Complaints on the content of the press and actions of journalists can be made to the Press Complaints Commission'.
The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/6457757

Freedom of the press

'Liberty to print or disseminate information in the press or in the media generally, without censorship before or after the event and without incurring penalties'
Dictionary of Media Studies. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/5889347

Organisations

European Federation of Journalistshttp://www.ifj-europe.org/default.asp?Issue=EFJ&language=EN
International federation of Journalists http://www.ifj.org/default.asp?Language=EN
Committee to Protect Journalists http://www.cpj.org/
Reporters without borders http://www.rsf.org/
World Press Freedom Committee http://www.wpfc.org/
Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom http://www.cpbf.org.uk/
International Freedom of Expression Exchange http://www.ifex.org/
International Press Institutehttp://www.freemedia.at/cms/ipi/
World Association of Newspapershttp://www.wan-press.org/index.php3
The MediaWise Trust http://www.mediawise.org.uk/display_page.php?id=83
Human Rights Watch http://hrw.org/

Short reports & articles

Reporters without Borders - Press freedom day by dayhttp://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=11715
Europe v. USA: Freedom of the press by Josef Schrabal
http://www.columbia.edu/~js322/nyl/melantrich/freedom-of-the-press.html
The French town of Bayeux and Reporters wihout borders inaugurate a Journalists Memorial on the eve of World Freedom Day http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=21777
Radio Free Europe 5/2/07 World: CPJ Discusses Dangers, Obstacles Journalists Face http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/02/41ec6c05-c459-41fe-98e1-6e62a454c186.html
Committee to Protect Journalists Attacks on the Press 2005 http://www.cpj.org/attacks05/pages05/attacks_archives.html
Freedom of the Press 2005 http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=16&year=2005
International Federation of Journalists Aidan White (2002) Journalism and the War on Terrorism http://www.ifj.org/pdfs/war.pdf
World Association of Newspapers Press Freedom, World Review, November 2005 to May 2006 http://www.wan-press.org/article11161.html
Council of Europe Guidelines of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on protecting freedom of expression and information in times of crisis, 26 September 2007 https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1188493
OneWorld.net October 29, 2002 U.S. Gets Low Grade for Press Freedom by Jim Lobe http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1029-07.htm
Villate-Compton, P. (2004) 'Press Freedom in Britain and France', paper at Arab Press Freedom Watch conference, Morocco http://www.apfw.org/data/annualconference/2004/english/papers/Europe04PascaleEn.pdf
French Embassy account of Freedom of speech in the French media http://www.ambafrance-uk.org/Freedom-of-speech-in-the-French.html last updated 24 May 2007 (accessed 17/10/07)
International Press Institute - report on Germany 2004 http://www.freemedia.at/cms/ipi/freedom_detail.html?country=/KW0001/KW0003/KW0062/&year=2004
(2007) 'Top German Court Boosts Press Freedom', Der Spiegel, February 27 http://www.newswatch.in/editors-picks/6840.html
Reporters Without Borders: More Commitment to Freedom of the Press by Volker Thomas, Goethe Institute web site http://www.goethe.de/wis/med/dos/jou/pfr/en2301158.htm
International Press Institute (2004) World Press Freedom Review - Spain http://www.freemedia.at/cms/ipi/freedom_detail.html?country=/KW0001/KW0003/KW0082/&year=2004
Coordinating Committee of Press Freedom Organizations denounces judicial assault on press freedom in Spain http://canada.ifex.org/eng/layout/set/print/content/view/full/62439/
2004 Andersen Lecture, 'Why Press Freedom is Disappearing in the Post-Communist World', by Henrikas Yushkiavitshus, Former Deputy Chairman of the Soviet Radio and Television Commission, Current UNESCO Communications Advisor http://www.wpfc.org/AL2004.html
BBC news online 5 June 2006 'Putin grilled over press freedom' http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5049628.stm
Radio Free Europe 1/5/07 CIS: Press Freedom Suffers Continued Decline http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/5/68BDF9FD-478C-4240-9269-E35EB1DEF903.html
Matthias Schepp, Christian Neef and Uwe Klussmann (2006) 'Russian Journalist Murdered: Russia's Press Freedom Dead?', Spiegel Online 20 October http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,443543,00.html
Independent 11 October 2007 'Press freedom: To understand these outrages, you need a Russian history lesson', http://news.independent.co.uk/media/article2348004.ece
'The pen put to the sword' by Allison Gill, Director of the Russia office of Human Rights Watch http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/03/07/russia15458.htm
Radio Free Europe, 'Russia: Press Freedom Under Threat', May 3, 2007 http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/05/222c0445-0c16-4b83-95cc-30dc59aae9cc.html
Committee to Protect Journalists (2007) 'In Russia, legislation on ‘extremism’ poses new press freedom threat' http://www.cpj.org/news/2007/europe/russia11july07na.html
Human Rights Watch Azerbaijan: Press Freedom Undermined http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/08/04/azerba9177.htm
World Association of Newspapers (2004) 'Press Freedom Threatened in Poland' http://www.wan-press.org/article413.html
Committee to Protect Journalists Poland in 2000http://www.cpj.org/attacks00/europe00/Poland.html
European Federation of Journalists (2004) Poland’s Disgrace: How Legal Actions Threaten to “Put Free Journalism Under Lock and Key”, http://www.ifj-europe.org/default.asp?index=2583&Language=EN

Controversy over Danish cartoons

BBC news online 1 February 2006 'Muhammad cartoon row intensifies', http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4670370.stm
Deutsche Welle 02.02.2006 'Cartoon Row Escalates; Germany Defends Press Freedom' http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1890064,00.html
Danish cartoon affair, free speech, racism , Islamism and integration http://www.bris.ac.uk/sociology/ethnicitycitizenship/danishcartoon.pdf
European Federation of Journalists 04/12/2006 'Journalists Hail 'Brilliant News for Press Freedom' After Danish Court Verdict' http://www.ifj-europe.org/default.asp?index=4430&Language=EN

Academic books and articles

Bajomi-Lázár, P. (1999) Press Freedom in Hungary, 1988-1998, Budapest: Open Society Institute http://www.osi.hu/ipf/publications/PeterBL-PressFree.pdf
Belsey, A. and Chadwick, R. (1992) Ethical Issues in Journalism and the Media, London and New York: Routledge, e-book http://www.myilibrary.com?id=36096
Culik, J. (1999) 'Press Freedom under Threat', Central Europe Review, 1(3). http://www.ce-review.org/99/3/culik3.html
Curran, J. and Seaton, J. (2003) Power Without Responsibility: The Press, Broadcasting, and New Media in Britain, London: Routledge
Hargreaves, I. (2003) Journalism: Truth Or Dare?, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Harrison, J. (2006) News, London and New York: Routledge, e-book http://www.myilibrary.com?id=28900
Holtz-Bacha, C. (2004) 'What is "good" press freedom? The difficulty of measuring freedom of the press worldwide', paper at International Association for Media and Communication Research conference, Brazil, July http://www.kowi.wiso.uni-erlangen.de/publikationen/docs/good_press_freedom.pdf
Humphreys, P. (1994) Media and Media Policy in Germany: the press and broadcasting since 1945, 2nd ed., Oxford; Providence, Rhode Island: Berg 302.230943/HUM
Humphreys, P. (1996) Mass Media and Media Policy in Western Europe, Manchester: Manchester University Press
Rose, Richard (2001) 'A Diverging Europe', Journal of Democracy, 12(1): 93-106
Splichal, S. (1993) Media Beyond Socialism: Theory and Practice in East-Central Europe, Boulder: Westview Press
Taylor, G. (2000) Freedom, Responsibility and the Media, Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University Press 323.4450941/TAY
von Struensee, Vanessa (2002) ‘Ukraine at ten: freedom of expression goes from dismal to dangerous’, The American Association for Ukrainian Studies.
http://www.ukrainianstudies.org/entries/vonstruensee.pdf (accessed 12/10/07)
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