WR1003 War and Reconstuction in the Balkans
Week 7 Gender, Nationalism and War

3. Chronology

1989 Kosovo Polje

1990 Competitive elections
1990 Croatian Constitution said that 'marriage and family are 'natural and moral basis of society'.
Jan 1990 Resolution on population
May 1990 Croat government stressed demographic problem
December 1990 Arkadia – Lesbian & Gay Lobby set up – but split by nationalism – those favouring non-nationalist and non-militarist policy prevailed. Face police harassment and difficulties in finding meeting places.

May/June 1991 Croatia and Slovenia declared independence – JNA resisted this – fighting in Slovenia lasted 10 days and then JNA withdrew.
In Croatia, UN imposed arms embargo on all former republics – meant that JNA was strongest militarily.
Summer 1991 Mothers Protest in Serbia & Croatia - became less pacifist and then stopped.
Summer 1991 Centre for Anti-War action formed
July 1991 Anti-War Campaign in Croatia started - environmental, women's and civil rights groups.
Autumn 1991 Women in Black formed – anti-nationalist, anti-militarist, feminist and pacifist – stressed that their action was political and not extension of women’s ‘natural’ role.
"We wanted it to be clearly understood that what we were doing was our political choice, a radical criticism of the patriarchal, militarist regime and a non-violent act of resistance to policies that destroy cities, kill people, and annihilate human relations."
Women in Black Autumn 1991 cited in Hughes, D. (1999) 'Women in Black against the War in Yugoslavia' Feminista 3/1 http://www.feminista.com/v3n1/hughes.html

January 1992 UN peacekeeping plan accepted
March 1992 Centre for Women’s Studies Research and Communication formed – autonomous centre offering classes.
April 1992 New constitution
April 1992 B-H declared independence – JNA attacked – Serb nationalists instigated ethnic cleansing.
The aim of creating ethnically ‘pure’ territories meant that war aimed primarily at civilian population.
Profiteers, gangsters & murderers seized opportunities given by nationalism.
December 1992 Women from SOS Hotline formed Group For Women Raped in War – to provide basic necessities and support – also wanted to publicize the atrocities against Muslim and Croat women
December 1992 5 witches propaganda

Early 1993 Serb Orthodox Church called for ban on abortion
December 1993 The Group formed the Autonomous Women’s Centre against Sexual Violence – said that human rights are above national rights – Centre is for all survivors of rape and sexual abuse – give support and take political action to make sexual violence against women socially visible.
Also campaigned against proposals to restrict abortion.

September 1994 SOS & AWVSV set up Women's Law Advocacy Centre

November 1995 Dayton Peace Accords

1. Introduction / 2. Context / 3. Chronology / 4. Women as Symbols / 5. Women as Reproducers / 6. Women as Keepers of the Home / 7. Limited Autonomy / 8. Women in Armed Groups / 9. Women Civilians / 10. Women's Bodies as Territory / 11. Militarization of Society / 12. Reading

URL: http://pers-www.wlv.ac.uk/~le1810/wr1003d.htm
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