WS3300 Women in Europe

Week 3 Women and Politics

Studying Women and Politics

Women and Politics is a vast topic and could include In this topic we concentrate on the second and third aspects. However, we deal with the last three aspects in other parts of the module.

Tasks for Students
Make some firm generalizations about women and politics, either across the world or just in Europe.
Can you explain the thinking behind your generalizations?
What sort of empirical evidence would you need to test out your generalizations?

We need to approach the study of women and politics historically, empirically and theoretically. To find out what the patterns of women's political participation and of their representation in positions of political leadership are, we need some statistics.

Women in National Parliaments
Women in Decision-making

It is useful to look for changes over time

Chronology of Women's Suffrage
Women in the House of Commons Factsheet

In looking for explanations of patterns, it is useful to compare the patterns in different countries or different regions.

Centre for Advancement of Women in Politics
Women in Governmment
Cultural Barriers to Women's Leadership: A Worldwide Comparison by P. Norris & R. Inglehart
Women's Representation and Electoral Systems
Women's Representation in Parliament: The Role of Political Parties by Miki Caul

Gender Differences in Political Participation

In the 1970s, studies of liberal democracies showed that women were The first and third generalisations were also made about women in the political systems of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.
It was also said that the higher proportion of women in national parliaments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union than in the national parliaments of Western Europe was due to Communist parties trying to make these assemblies, which were not based on competitive elections, look representative of the population.

The picture has changed quite considerably since then.

Tasks for Students
What explanation can you give for the position in the 1970s?
What factors might have caused the picture to change over the last 20 years?

Challenging the Under-representation of Women and Women's Issues

Among the measures that have been taken to increase the representation of women in national parliaments are quota systems.

Women Around the World
Women in Politics: The Long Road to Parity by Caroline Lambert
French National Assembly page on 'Parité, égalité entre les femmes et les hommes' (in French)
Using Quotas to Increase Women's Political Participation by Drude Dahlerup

More materials about women, political parties and parliaments

Obstacles to Women's Participation in Politics by N. Shvedova
Blair's Babes: Critical Mass Theory, Gender and Legislative Life by Pippa Norris & Joni Lovenduski$File/rwp01_039_pnorris.pdf
Gender and Contemporary British Politics by Pippa Norris
Man Enough for the Job?: a Study of Parliamentary Candidates by Jessica Elgood, Louise Vinter & Rachel Williams
Power, Politics, Positionings: Women in Northern Ireland Report by Democratic Dialogue (1996)
The Northern Ireland Assembly and Women: Assessing the Gender Deficit December 2000
Second Among Equals: Women and the Conservative Party.
Lecture by Tessa Keswick, October 2000
Women in Parliament: Their Contribution to Labour's First 1000 Days by Fiona Mactaggart
Labour Women
Guardian page on 'Women and Politics',12913,911307,00.html

Tasks for Students
Give your views on the following questions
What general social and economic changes might have helped to improve the representation of women in national parliaments in Western Europe?
Are similar trends present in Russia and Eastern Europe?
How influential have women's movements been in putting women's issues on the agenda of national parliaments?
Why is it considered desirable for men and women to be equally represented in national parliaments?
Do the same arguments apply to the gender balance of national governments?

Full Reading List on Women and Politics

Selected Reading

General\ Conceptual\ Europe-wide

J Bystydzienski (ed)(1992) Women Transforming Politics
M Gittens et al (1994) Different Roles, Different Voices: Women and Politics in the USA and Europe 320.082DIF
J Lovenduski (1986) Women and European Politics: Contemporary Feminism and Public Policy
J Lovenduski & P Norris (eds)(1993) Gender & Political Parties
C Mueller (1988) The Politics of the Gender Gap
P Norris (1987) Politics and Sexual Equality: Women in Western Democracies
V Randall (1987) Women and Politics 2nd Edition
B Rogers (1983) 52%: Getting Women's Power into Politics
E Vallance & E Davies (1986) Women MEP's and Equality Policy
A Ward et al (1993) Women and Citizenship in Europe
Articles & Chapters
S Bourque & J Grossholtz (1974) "Politics as Unnatural Practice: Science Looks at Female Participation" Politics and Society
F Castles (1981) "Female Legislative Representation and the Electoral System" Politics 1/2
J Evans (1984) "The good society? Implications of a greater participation by women in public life" Political Studies 32/4
J. Freedman (2002) 'Women in the European Parliament' Parliamentary Affairs 55: 179-188.
J Hills (1983) "Candidates and the Impact of Gender" Parliamentary Affairs 36\3
W Kohn (1981) "Women in the European Parliament" Parliamentary Affairs 34\2
M M Lee (1976) "Why Few Women hold Public Office" Political Science Quarterly Vol 91 Part 2
J Lovenduski (1997) 'Gender Politics: A New Breakthrough for Women?' Parliamentary Affairs 50/4
J Lovenduski (2001) Women and Politics: Minority Representation or Critical Mass? Parliamentary Affairs 54: 743-758.
M L Inglehart (1981) "Political Interest in W. European Women" Comparative Political Studies Vol 14 No 3
P Norris (1985) "Women's Legislative Participation in W. Europe" West European Politics 8/4
P Norris (1991) "Gender Differences in Political Participation in Britain: Traditional, Radical & Revisionist Models" Government & Opposition 26/1
P. Norris (1996) 'Mobilising the 'women's vote': the gender-generation gap in voting behaviour' Parliamentary Affairs 49/2 pp. 333-342
A Stevens (1986) "Women, Politics & Government in Britain, France & Germany" in S Reynolds (ed) Women, State & Revolution
D de Vans & I McAllister (1989) "Gender & Political Alignment in 11 Nations" European Journal of Political Research Vol 17 No 3

United Kingdom

A Carter (1988) The Politics of Women's Rights Chs 4 & 5
P Norris & J Lovenduski (1994) Political Recruitment: Gender, Race and Class in the British Parliament
R Ridd &H Callaway (1986) Caught up in Conflict: Women's Responses to Political Strife
A Brown (1997) Changing the Face of Party Politics in Britain
J Rasmussen (1983) "Women's Role in Contemporary British Politics: Impediments to Parliamentary Candidates" Parliamentary Affairs 36\3
P Norris (1985) "Conservative attitudes in recent British elections: an emerging gender gap?" Political Studies Vol 18 No 1
P Norris (1985) "The gender gap in Britain & America" Parliamentary Affairs 38\2
J Lovenduski & P Norris (1989) "Selecting Women Candidates: obstacles to the feminisation of the House of Commons" European Journal of Political Research 17\5
P Norris (1991)"Gender differences in political participation in Britain: traditional, radical & revisionist models" Government & Opposition Vol 26 No 1 1991
E Vallance (1984) "Women Candidates in the 1983 Election" Parliamentary Affairs 37\3
"Women in Parliament" Economist 28/2/87
"The Women's Movement and the Labour Party: interview with Labour Party Feminists" Feminist Review No 16 1984
P Norris (1994) 'The Recruitment of Party Candidates' in L Robins et al (eds) Britain's Changing Party System
S Childs (2001) 'Attitudinally Feminist? The New Labour Women MPs and the Substantive Representation of Women' Politics 21/3
C Bochel & J Briggs (2000) 'Do Women Make a Difference?' Politics 20/2
Clare Short (1996) 'Women and the Labour Party' Parliamentary Affairs 49/1 pp. 17-25


Y Ergas (1982) "Feminism & the Italian Party System" Comparative Politics 14\ 3


V Mottier (1995) 'Citizenship and Gender Division in the Swiss Direct Democracy' West European Politics 18\1


C Abel & N Torrents (eds) (1984) Spain: Conditional Democracy Ch 9
Amy Brooksbank Jones (1997) Women in Contemporary Spain, Manchester University Press


E Kolinsky (1993) Women in Contemporary Germany
M Jacobs (1978)"Civil Rights & Women's Rights in the Federal Republic of Germany today" New German Critique No 13
M Ferree "Feminist Politics & Equality Offices" German Politics & Society Nos 24 & 25 1991-92
E Kolinsky (1981) "Political Participation & Parliamentary Careers: Women's Quotas in W Germany" West European Politics Vol 14 No 1
E Kolinsky (1988)"The West German Greens: a Women's Party?" Parliamentary Affairs Vol 41 Part 1
E Kolinsky (1991) 'The SPD and the Second 'Frauleinwunder'' in J Gaffney & E Kolinsky(eds) Political Culture in France and Germany
E Kolinsky (1989) 'Women in the Green Party' in E Kolinsky(ed) The Greens in West Germany
M Hampton (1995) 'Women and the 1994 Elections: Dissatisfaction and Accommodation' in D Conradt et al (eds) Germany's New Politics


Allwood, G & Wadia, K (2000) Women and Politics in France
A. Gregory & U. Tidd, (eds) (2000) Women in Contemporary France Oxford: Berg. 305.420944/WOM
D Stetson (1987)Women's Rights in France
C Duchen (1986) Feminism in France: from May '68 to Mitterrand
M Sineau (1983) "French women in politics: stagnation or change?" Journal of Area Studies No 7
M Coquillat (1988) "The Achievements of the French Ministry of Women's Rights 1981-6" in M Buckley & M Anderson (eds) Women, Equality & Europe
W Northcutt & J Flaitz (1985) "Women, Politics and the French Socialist Government" West European Politics 8/4
S B Bashevkin (1987) "Changing patterns of politicization and partisanship among women in France" British Journal of Political Science 17/3
N Henry (1995) 'Gender Parity in French Politics' Political Quarterly 66\3
Danielle Haase-Dubosc (1999) 'Sexual Difference and Politics in France Today' Feminist Studies Spring.


E Haavio-Mannila (1985) Unfinished Democracy: Women in Nordic Politics
M Keranen(ed) (1992) Gender and Politics in Finland
L Karvonen(ed) (1995) Closing the Gap: Women in Nordic Politics
I Blom (1988) 'Women's Politics and Women in Politics in Norway since the end of the nineteenth century' in S Kleinberg(ed) Retrieving Women's History
I Norderval (1985) "Party & legislative participation among Scandinavian women" West European Politics 8/4
M Edwards (1991) "The Swedish Gender model: productivity, pragmatism & paternalism" West European Politics 14/3

Soviet Union\ Russia\ Eastern Europe

G Browning Women and Politics in the USSR
R Hill & P Frank The Soviet Communist Party Ch 2
G Lapidus (1978) Women in Soviet Society
B Holland (ed)(1985) Soviet Sisterhood
M Buckley (ed)(1992) Perestroika & Soviet Women
M Rueschemeyer(ed) (1993) Women in the Politics of Post-Communist Eastern Europe 301.5920947WOM
A Reading (1992) Polish Women, Solidarity and Feminism
J C Moses (1977) "Women in Political Roles" in D Atkinson et al (eds) Women in Russia
G Lapidus (1975) "Political Mobilization, Participation and Leadership: Women in Soviet Politics" Comparative Politics Vol 8
J Regulska (1992) 'Women and Power in Poland' in J Bystydzienski Women Transforming Politics
B Jancar (1985) 'Women in the Opposition in Poland and Czechoslovakia in the 1970s' in S Wolchik & A Meyer Women, State and Party in Eastern Europe 301.412094WOM
S Wolchik (1996) 'Czech and Slovak Women and Political Leadership' Women's History Review, 5/4
J Heinen (1992) 'Polish Democracy is Male-gendered' Women's Studies International Forum 15\1
M Rueschmeyer (1994)'Women in the Politics of Eastern Germany: the Dilemmas of Reunification' in M Rueschmeyer(ed) Women in the Politics of Post Communist Eastern Europe
A Herhoffer (1995) 'Autonomy versus Integration: East German Women and Political Participation' Journal of Area Studies No 6

Labour Research Articles

"Women in unions: a long way to go" April 1986
"Why women stay out of the house" Jan 1992
"Challenging the men in suits" March 1992
"Slow progress in Euro-unions" March 1992
"The Commons: A Women's Place" 1991
"More Women in the gentlemen's club?" May 1992
'Labour Threat to Gentleman's Club' March 1997

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